In 1990, four Alpha Jets of the Nigerian Air Force were deployed in support of Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) forces stationed in Liberia, which were engaged in combat with the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) following an international intervention in the Liberian Civil War. In a series of strikes, these aircraft targeted and launched successful attacks upon Charles Taylor’s HQ, rebel convoys and shipping, and gun emplacements at Roberts International Airport; the results of their intervention was judged by The New York Times to have given ECOMOG forces a decisive advantage in fire power.

In 1992, six Nigerian Alpha Jets were placed directly under ECOMOG command, and employed against the NPLF in an extensive campaign of air strikes, road interdictions missions, anti-shipping sorties, and night raids (a task which the Alpha Jet was not normally equipped to perform). They were even employed to deny access to key bridges in order to give ECOMOG ground forces time to capture them before they were sabotaged. In total, Alpha Jets flew approximately 3,000 combat missions in support of ECOMOG, sustaining no losses but incurring some damage from anti-aircraft artillery.

In 2013, Nigeria began taking steps to bring its Alpha Jet fleet back into service, upgrading 13 of the original 24 into serviceable condition, due to an urgent need for strike aircraft to participate in air support missions for counter insurgency operations against Boko Haram.

In March 2016, Nigerian car manufacturer Innoson Vehicle Manufacturing (IVM) signed a supply agreement with the Nigerian Air Force to produce components and various spare parts for the Alpha Jet.

In 2015, Nigeria ordered four additional aircraft from the United States; these aircraft had been de-militarized and prepared for civilian operations, however Nigeria had reportedly returned two of these to an unspecified armed configuration by early 2016.

The restored Alpha Jet force has been routinely employed in combat air patrols, and has conducted multiple air strikes against Boko Haram militants over a number of years. In September 2014, multiple Alpha Jets conducted a large number of aerial bombardment missions over and around the area of Bama, Borno State, during the fight to regain the city following the withdrawal of friendly ground forces.

In early October 2014, Boko Haram released a video containing the decapitation of who they claimed was a captured Nigerian Air Force pilot of a downed Alpha Jet.

In March 2016, attacks performed by Nigerian Alpha Jets had reportedly dislodged Boko Haram fighters from Sambisa Forest, Borno State

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